Tuesday, May 19, 2020
THE CHALLENGES OF HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN Dr. Nasim Ashraf Abstract This paper explores the challenges posed in the area of human development in Pakistan. Pakistan has made little progress in key indicators of human development - education and health - due to years of neglect in policy making and implementation issues. Based on available data, it is highlighted that despite achieving a respectable growth rate, Pakistan has not been able to reduce poverty as other nations have (with similar or even lower levels of GDP per capita). Poor human development has also hampered economic growth. The paper brings out the principal challenges of human resource development in Pakistan, which are mainly the untrained,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Pakistan HDI ranking is very low - 142 out of 175 countries according to Human Development Report 2004 - depicting the poor level of human development in the country (see Figure 1 below). Figure 1: HDI Comparison Source: Human Development Report 2004 Ã¢â¬â UNDP A high GDP does not necessarily mean a high degree of human development which is indicated below by a comparison of selected countries showing their standing on HDI, including Pakistan (Figure 2). Figure: No.2: HDI vs. GDP per capita Vietnam has been able to decrease poverty by one half between 1990-2000 because of its relatively higher investments in female literacy and basic health care (see Figure 3 below). Figure 3: Comparison of Human Development Indicators: Vietnam vs. Pakistan [pic] In the context of South Asia, Pakistan has the lowest net enrollment rates in the region according to the UNDP Human Development Report (see below). Figure 4: Net Primary Enrollment Rate (%) Regional Comparison Source: Human Development Report 2004 - UNDP Pakistan has the highest rate of infant and under-5 child mortality in the region, according to Human Development Report (see below). Figure 5: Infant Mortality Rate (Deaths per 1,000 Live Births) Comparison Source: Human Development Report 2004 - UNDP This persistent under-achievement in access to health and education is in part attributable to the exclusion of significant segments of society from access to development benefits.Show MoreRelatedLeadership Effectiveness and Business Management792 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthat coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Management is also an academic discipline, a social science whose object of study is theRead MoreSelection and Implementation of an Enterprise Maturity Model for Companies in Pakistan1730 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessoftware houses in Pakistan. Some characteristics of small Pakistani software houses are provided which affect implementation of a maturity model. Some possible problems are identified in the implementation of the best maturity model and some solutions are also provided. I. INTRODUCTION In last 15 years, information technology has developed at an outstanding rate throughput the world including Pakistan. This development of information technology also requires the development and use of large andRead MorePoverty in Pakistan: Causes and Consequences1610 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesline limit according to its own level of development, societal norms and values. But the contents of the needs are more or less the same everywhere. Hunger, lack of shelter, being sick and unable to see a doctor, no access to school and education, joblessness, fear of the future are all the constituents of the Poverty. It also encompasses lack of opportunities, expression, representation and freedom. Pakistan is a low income developing country. In Pakistan, like other developing countries, povertyRead MoreHrm at Glaxosmithkline Pakistan1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman Resource Management (HRM) at GlaxoSmithKline (plc) Objective: This report aims to explain Human Resource Management and its tactics with our exclusive discussion of HRM at GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). In our meeting with the Assistant Manager of Recruitment at GSK, Mr. Sufyan Ismail, we discussed the HRM policy being implemented in the organization. This term report shall be covering the points highlighted in our discussion that include the following HR proceduresRead MorePakist Child Health And Mortality1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages04/28/15 Global Health Country Report Pakistan: Child Health and Mortality Introduction Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s separation from India in 1947, Pakistan steadily grew to a country with a population of about 184.35 million people in 2013, making it the sixth most populous country in the world (Ã¢â¬Å"About PakistanÃ¢â¬ ). Pakistan is broken into four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Ã¢â¬Å"About PakistanÃ¢â¬ ). Its capital is the city of Islamabad. While Pakistan has taken many steps to improve the stateRead MoreFamous Management Journals1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprint the followings: Ã¢Å¾ ¢ List the journals in your discipline Ã¢Å¾ ¢ List of approved journals by HEC Ã¢Å¾ ¢ List of journals in your area for ISI Thomson list Ã¢Å¾ ¢ List of some selected journals with some impact factor MPhil Human Resource Management SUBMITTED ON: 2nd March, 2012 Discipline Chosen: Management Area Chosen: HRM Journal Stated (Management): 141 HRM Journal as per ISI Thomson List: 110 Impact factor as per 2010 |SERIAL NO: Read MoreGood Governance and Role of Public Servant1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGovernance 5. Good Governance in Pakistan 6. Public Servant and its role for Good Governance 7. Conclusion Governance is not a new concept. It is, as old as, human civilization. Governance has various forms and manifestations according to varied and diversified needs and gigantic challenges with ever changing circumstances. For example, accountability, justice, law and order, poverty alleviation, judicious allocation of funds and distribution of resources, reducing economic disparities andRead MoreColonization of Bangladesh989 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages how Bangladesh came to be and a brief overview of how it is doing now. As most geographers know that there is an intense relationship between Pakistan, India and Bangladesh, for good reason too. They were all part of the same colony once and hence when we talk about the colonization of Bangladesh, we must mention details from those of India and Pakistan. Colonization of India Imperial colonization has had long lasting effects throughout history, and even till this date somewhat dictates theRead MoreHow Energy Crisis Is A Crisis Of Human Development Essay1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincompitancy of exploration sector, miss allocation of resourcesflects industrial output,transportation,agricultural output,etc.Electricity breakdown in Pakistan is alarming. When energy supply of an industry is restricted, its output decreases and cost of production available to human beings.Therefore,we can say that energy crisis is a crisis of human development. It is indeed a matter of life and death. The multidimensional ongoing energy crisis has been having a knock on the life of every Pakistani. WithoutRead MoreGood Governance in Pakistan1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGood Governance in Pakistan. OUTLINES: 1. Introduction 2. Definition of Governance 3. Governance in Pakistan. 4. Failures of Governance in Pakistan 5. Causes of failures: 1. Political commotion 2. No democratic setup 3. Military intrusion 4. Feudal indulgence 5. Massive Corruption 6. Constitutional crises 7. Institutional clashes 8. Mismanagement of resources 9. Lack of Accountability 10. Over Exploitation of funds 11. Restrictions on media 12. Ethnic conflicts 13. Secterianism 14. Extremism 6 Essentials
Elian Gonzalez is a Cuban citizen who was brought to the U.S. in 1999 by his mother on a boat that capsized and killed almost all of its passengers. Despite his fathers pleas to return his five-year-old son to Cuba, Elians Miami-based relatives insisted on keeping him in the U.S. The little boy was used as a political pawn in the decades-long fight between the Cuban government and anti-communist Miami Cuban exiles. After months of court battles, U.S. federal agents raided the Miami relatives home to seize Elian and return him to his father. The Elian Gonzalez affair is considered a major development in Cuba-U.S. policy. Fast Facts: Elian Gonzalez Full Name: EliÃ ¡n GonzÃ ¡lez BrotonsKnown For:Ã Surviving a treacherous sea voyage from Cuba to the U.S. as a five-year-old boy and becoming a political pawn in the fight between Miami Cuban exiles and the Cuban government.Born:Ã December 6, 1993 in CÃ ¡rdenas, CubaParents:Ã Juan Miguel GonzÃ ¡lez, Elizabeth Brotons RodrÃ guezEducation:Ã University of Matanzas, Engineering, 2016 Early Life Elian Gonzalez Brotons was born to Juan Miguel GonzÃ ¡lez and Elizabeth Brotons RodrÃ guez on December 6, 1993 in the port city of CÃ ¡rdenas, on Cubas northern coast. Although the couple had divorced in 1991, they still decided to have a child together. They separated in 1996 for good, but remained co-parents. In 1999, Brotons was convinced by her boyfriend, LÃ ¡zaro Munero, to flee Cuba via boat, and they took five-year-old Elian with them, effectively kidnapping him (as Brotons didnt have permission from Juan Miguel). Voyage to the U.S. An aluminum boat carrying 15 passengers left CÃ ¡rdenas in the early morning hours of November 21, 1999. A few days later, the boat capsized off the Florida Keys, and all passengers except Elian and two adults drowned. Two fishermen spotted an inner tube around 9:00 a.m. on Thanksgiving morning, November 25, and rescued the little boy, taking him to the hospital for medical treatment. The next day, the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS, the former name for ICE) released him into the temporary custody of his great-uncles, LÃ ¡zaro and DelfÃ n GonzÃ ¡lez, and LÃ ¡zaros daughter Marisleysis, who became a temporary mother figure to the boy. Marisleysis Gonzalez (L) helps her cousin Elian Gonzalez (C) decorate a Christmas tree at her home in Miami 22 December, 1999, after finding out that immigration officials have delayed a hearing to decide the six-year-olds fate to 21 January, 2000. Ã Bill Cooke / Getty Images Almost immediately, Juan Miguel GonzÃ ¡lez demanded the return of his son to Cuba and even filed a complaint with the United Nations to gain visibility, but his uncles refused. The State Department recused itself in the matter of custody, leaving it up to the Florida courts. A Little Boy Becomes a Political Pawn Just days after his rescue, the Miami exile community saw an opportunity to humiliate Fidel Castro and began using photos of Elian on posters, declaring him another child victim of Fidel Castro. As discussed by Miguel De La Torre, a scholar who studies religion in Latin America, Miami Cubans saw him not only as a symbol of the evils of Cuban socialism, but as a sign from God that the Castro regime was on its last legs. They viewed his survival in the treacherous waters as a miracle and even began circulating the myth that dolphins had encircled Elians inner tube to protect him from sharks. Local politicians flocked to the GonzÃ ¡lez home for photo-ops and an influential political consultant, Armando GutiÃ ©rrez, appointed himself spokesperson for the family. The hardline Cuban American National Foundation (CANF) also got involved. Elians relatives threw him a big 6th birthday bash on December 6, attended by major politicians like Congressional representative Lincoln DÃ az-Balart. Elian Gonzalez is held by Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, R-Fl., during the Three Kings Parade 09 January, 2000, in Miamis Little Havana. Ã Rhona Wise / Getty Images Elians Miami relatives soon filed for political asylum for the little boy, stating that his mother had fled Cuba seeking freedom for her son and that she would have wanted him to remain with his Miami relatives. Contradicting this narrative, Brotons did not appear to have fled Cuba as a political refugee, but rather was following her boyfriend to Miami. In fact, journalist Ann Louise Bardach, who has written extensively on Cuba, notes that Brotons hadnt even planned on contacting the GonzÃ ¡lez family, as they were relatives of her ex-husband. On the other side of the Florida Strait, Fidel Castro milked the Elian affair for political capital, demanding the boy be returned to his father and staging mass, government-organized demonstrations drawing tens of thousands of Cubans. Some 160,000 Cuban children march 12 June, 2000, to the US Interest Office in Havana to demand the return of six-year-old Elian Gonzalez. Adalberto Roque / Getty ImagesÃ In January 2000, the INS ruled that Elian should be returned to his father in Cuba within a week. There were mass demonstrations to protest the ruling in Miami. Elians relatives filed to declare LÃ ¡zaro GonzÃ ¡lez his legal guardian. While a local court granted him emergency custody, U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno rejected the ruling, insisting that the family file in federal court. On January 21, Elians two grandmothers traveled from Cuba to visit with their grandson, the result of a deal between U.S. diplomats and Fidel Castro. They were able to visit with Elian at a neutral location in Miami, but were never allowed to be alone with him and felt he was being manipulated by Marisleysis the whole time. The Miami exile community had predicted that either or both of the women would defect from Cuba during their time in the U.S., but neither expressed any desire to that effect. US Rep. Maxine Waters (C), D-CA, speaks to reporters outside her office after meeting with grandmothers of six-year-old Cuban Elian Gonzalez, Raquel Rodriguez (L) and Mariela Quintana (2nd R) 28 January 2000 on Capitol Hill in Washington DC. Ã Chris Kleponis / Getty Images In April, the State Department approved visas for Juan Miguel and his new wife and son to travel to the U.S. They arrived on April 6 and met with Janet Reno on April 7; soon after, Reno announced the governments intentions to return Elian to his father. On April 12, Reno initiated negotiations with the Miami GonzÃ ¡lez family, but they refused to release Elian. The Raid Fed up with the stalling of the GonzÃ ¡lez family, on April 22, before dawn, federal agents raided their home and seized Elian, reuniting him with his father. Due to court proceedings and mass demonstrations, they were not able to return to Cuba until June 28. Juan Miguel Gonzalez, right, speaks to reporters as attorney Gregory Craig looks on before he boards a jet for his return to Cuba with his son Elian Gonzalez June 28, 2000 at Dulles International Airport in Washington. Ã Alex Wong / Getty Images Miami Cubans had miscalculated the larger reception of attempting to keep Elian away from his father. Instead of generating sympathy for their anti-Castro ideology, it backfired and led to widespread critique among Americans. NPRs Tim Padgett stated, The world called Miami a banana republic. Critics said the Cuban-American communitys intoleranceÃ¢â¬âand the way it turned a traumatized child into a political footballÃ¢â¬âwas more reminiscent of none other than ... Fidel Castro. A former CANF president later admitted that it was a huge mistake and that he had not taken into account the perspective of more recent Cuban exiles (such as the Marielitos and balseros or rafters), who were in favor of normalizing relations with Cuba because of their continued ties with family members on the island. In fact, the Elian affair aided the argument of Miami Cubans who wanted normalization: they highlighted the ineffectiveness and exaggerated nature of the rhetoric surrounding the longstanding hardline U.S. policy toward Cuba. Return to Cuba and Relationship With Fidel Elian and Juan Miguel were given a heros welcome upon their return to Cuba. From that point on, Elian ceased to be just another Cuban boy. Fidel regularly attended his birthday parties. In 2013, he said to the Cuban media, Fidel Castro for me is like a father...I dont profess to have any religion, but if I did my God would be Fidel Castro. He is like a ship that knew to take his crew on the right path. Elian continued to be invited to high-profile political events and was part of the official mourning ceremonies for Castro following his November 2016 death. Cuban President Fidel Castro (C) talks with Elian Gonzalez (L), 14 July 2001 in Cardenas, Cuba during a political gathering to inaugurate the Museo a la Batalla de Ideas, where a range of objects relating to Elians custody battle in the US is being exhibited. Adalberto Roque / Getty ImagesÃ Juan Miguel was elected to the Cuban National Assembly in 2003; a waiter by profession, its unlikely that political ambitions would have surfaced if his son had not been the focus of a major controversy. Elian Gonzalez Today In 2010, Elian entered the military academy and went on to study industrial engineering at the University of Matanzas. He graduated in 2016 and currently works as a technology specialist for a state-run company. Elian Gonzalez, the young Cuban boy who was rescued off the coast of Florida 16 years ago, talks to the press at Havanas Revolution Square where people are paying their respects to Cuban revolutionary leader Fidel Castro on November 29, 2016, as tributes to the late former president are being held across the country. Ã STR / Getty Images Elian has been one of the most outspoken defenders of the Revolution in his generation and is a member of the UniÃ ³n de JÃ ³venes Comunistas (Young Communist League), the Cuban Communist Partys youth organization. In 2015, he stated, I have fun, play sports, but I am also involved with the work of the revolution and realize that young people are essential for the development of the country. He noted how lucky he was to have survived the dangerous voyage from Cuba to the U.S. and, echoing the Cuban governments rhetoric, blamed the U.S. embargo for pushing people to flee by boat: Just like [my mother], many others have died attempting to go to the United States. But its the U.S. governments fault...Their unjust embargo provokes an internal and critical economic situation in Cuba. In 2017, CNN Films released a documentary about Elian featuring interviews with him, his father, and his cousin Marisleysis. On his 25th birthday, in December 2018, he created a Twitter account. Thus far, he has only posted one tweet, which states that he decided to create an account to thank Cuban President Miguel DÃ az-Canel for his birthday wishes and to follow and support him. Sources Bardach, Ann Louise. Cuba Confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana. New York: Random House, 2002.De La Torre, Miguel A. La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.Vulliamy, Ed. EliÃ ¡n GonzÃ ¡lez and the Cuban crisis: fallout from a big row over a little boy. The Guardian, 20 February 2010. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/feb/21/elian-gonzalez-cuba-tug-war, accessed 29 September 2019.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Abortion is not easy decision, but women has made that choice for hundreds years, for many different reasons. Since 1973 abortions are legal in the United States, but we have some people who still are disagree with this position. They are talking about religion, that children are viewed as a gift from the Lord, about the health, and about the moral side of the issue. Should a fetus have rights equal or superior to womanÃ¢â¬â¢s? We can find many reasons for abortions and against it, but I think women have the legal right to make their own decision. The illegal abortions done in back alleys are become dangerous, expensive and humiliating. The reason for abortion can basically be divided into three categories. These categories are based upon theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition, to the fact that abortions kill innocent human beings, anti-abortionists believe that they also damage the mental, as well as physical condition of the mother. Since, after an abortion a mother is more susceptible to breast cancer, and to periods of depression. In the case of congenital defects, the pro-life activists argue that such indications of a disease, do not guarantee that the child will be born into a life of suffering. They believe that through love, and guidance anyone with any form of deformity or disease, can lead a normal life. The cases pertaining to rape also have different anti-abortionists views. Many anti-abortionists believe that the child can actually help the mother get through the turbulent times in her life, by providing each other with a loving environment. Finally, in the case of economics, the pro-life activi sts believe that having an abortion due to financial reasons is ridiculous. Because, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the child will have a life full of isolation and depression. The pro-life activists argue that there are also numerous welfare programs for such families. We can plan our lives, but we also know that life full of surprises, sometimes not very good surprises. Often a woman has to make the hard decision, when it is absolutely necessary, to choose to have an abortion, in secret, without medical care, in dangerous circumstances. Thousands of women have died! To be able to choose a safe, legal abortion makes manyShow MoreRelatedThe Issue Of The Abortion Essay1700 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyears old. Abortion has been legal in most of the state s, political parties think that it should continue to be the way it is and others think it should of change because it is damaging many people not only them but also the mother. Somehow they should not continue to pass that law . Texans passed a law of abortion and the Texans are over reacting to that law. However, people on the other side conclude that the supreme court should pass a law of not letting it be legal for to have an abortion. ThereRead MoreAbortion: Making a Case Against It Essay854 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdone by taking this drug (Abort 73). A therapeutic abortion is an induced pregnancy performed when the health of the mother would be endangered if the pregnancy continued (Abortion Funk Wagnalls). A curettage abortion is a procedure where the babyÃ¢â¬â¢s limbs are suctioned out of the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s womb. Afterwards any parts of the body will be scraped out using a surgical instrument called a curette. In 2010, about eighty-one percent of abortions were performed this way (Abort 73). There are many side effectsRead MoreAbortion Is Not Only Hurt The Baby1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesembryo or fetus before violability is an abortion. When this happens spontaneously, the word miscarriage is used, the word abortion being kept for the intended removal of the fetus from the uterus. (Oxford, 2001). A woman who has taken the decision to abort, they can only do it during their first, second and third trimester. Abortion does not only hurt the baby but also the person who is i nvolved in this situation and can affect that person not only mentally but also psychological. In some countries,Read MoreAbortion in Thai Perspective1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbortion or some says Ã¢â¬Å"miscarriageÃ¢â¬ has a long story and can be dated back to our ancient civilization such as China, Egypt, and Roman empires. There are several evidences to indicate that abortion is committed since ancient time. There are many ways to abort fetus inside motherÃ¢â¬â¢s stomach which are considered all inhumane, however, people still doing it till this very day. There are three main methods of abortion which people use around the world which are, medical abortion, surgical abortion, and otherRead MoreSelf-Induced Abortion Essay1171 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn immigrant woman regrets getting pregnant and wants to abort her child. The immigrant woman fears of being deported back to her country, so she decides to abort her own child without going to the Hospital to get a proper procedu re. Immigrant women, like this one, are deciding to abort their own baby instead of leaving the procedure to medical experts. Many consequences arise when immigrant women used different types of methods to abort their child because the fear of deportation or being shun byRead MoreEssay on Abortion: A Womans Right to Choose1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1973 abortions were as high as about 1.2 million per year (National Abortion Federation). The 1973 court case called Roe v. Wade opened up the possibility for women to decide to legally and safely abort or not. Jane Roe was the representation of all the women that wanted to have the right to abort in a legal and safe manner and her voice was heard and acknowledged. In the other hand, the attorney Henry Wade defended abortion being illegal, yet his point of view on the subject was not able to overcomeRead MoreThe Case Of Roe V. Wade972 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfirst 28 weeks of pregnancy. Inasmuch as it is true, in our society abortion is an extremely controversial subject, however, it is also safe to say that it is a very opinionated matter between those who do and do not believe in it. Abortion has been legal in the United States since the case of Roe v. Wade in the winter of 1973 labeling it as a Ã¢â¬Å"fundamental rightÃ¢â¬ , it has since been a moral issue within our society. The decision to terminate ones own pregnancy is in their own hands and the effects ofRead MoreIs Abortion Right Or Wrong?924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesminute, step back, and think of other options such as adoption. Many couples that want children cannot get pregnant. Some out there wants your child, whether it is you or someone else that cannot have their own child. With our state having abortion legal is like telling people that it is okay to get pregnant and then kill a human that is alive and growing within their stomach. Ã¢â¬Å"Women have a moral right to decide what to do with their bodies.Ã¢â¬ (http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/abortion/mother/for_1Read MoreAbortion: Pro-Life and Pro-Choice694 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagespro-choice abortion should be given the light of day and with this, there will be room for people to make informed choices and decisions on the matter. The facts on abortion have been grossly misconceived so that it can look so evil and sinful to abort but the following are the facts that surround the issue of abortion hence the reasons for my support for pro-choice stand: Almost all the abortions take place in the first trimester of the pregnancy when the fetus cannot independently exist. ThisRead MoreAbortion Should Be Legalize764 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesright to decide whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right for them and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s not. It should be legal because people should be given the right to decide whether or not theyÃ¢â¬â¢re ready or not to bring someone else into the world and provide for them. Abortion of course is a terrible thing, you have to put yourself under the knife and actually think Ã¢â¬Å"am I really going to go through with this, is this what I want?Ã¢â¬ No matter what, no one really wants to abort their child; there is always more to it. Some people feel that if they
Dying With Dignity The right to assisted suicide is a significant topic that concerns people all over the United States. The debates go back and forth about whether a dying patient has the right to die with the assistance of a physician. Some are against it because of religious and moral reasons. Others are for it because of their compassion and respect for the dying. Physicians are also divided on the issue. They differ where they place the line that separates relief from dying--and killing. For many the main concern with assisted suicide lies with the competence of the terminally ill. Many terminally ill patients who are in the final stages of their lives have requested doctors to aid them in exercising active euthanasia. It is sad toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some terminal patients in the past have gone to their doctors and asked for a final medication that would take all the pain awayÃ¢â¬â lethal drugs. For example, as Ronald Dworkin recounts, Lillian Boyes, an English wom an who was suffering from a severe case of rheumatoid arthritis, begged her doctor to assist her to die because she could no longer stand the pain (184). Another example is Ã¢â¬Å"The cost of maintaining [a dying person]. . . has been estimated as ranging from about two thousand to ten thousand dollars a monthÃ¢â¬ (Dworkin 187). Human life is expensive, and in the hospital there are only a few affluent terminal patients who can afford to prolong what life is left in them. As for the not-so-affluent patients, the cost of their lives is left to their families. Of course, most families do not consider the cost while the terminally ill loved-one is still alive.When that loved-one passes away, however, the family has to struggle with a huge hospital bill and are often subject to financial ruin.Most terminal patients want their death to be a peaceful one and with as much consolation as possible. Ronald Dworkin, author of LifeÃ¢â¬â¢s Dominion, says that Ã¢â¬Å"many people . . . want to save their relatives the expense of keeping them pointlessly alive . . .Ã¢â¬ (193). It is a liberty which cannot be denied because those who are dying might want to useShow MoreRelatedEuthanasia And Physician Assisted Suicide1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe ones we love? It would seem that most people would desire to die with dignity. Having the choice to die peacefully is a valuable option that every human should be able to make for themselves. For those with terminal illnesses or major health problems, assisted suicide creates options to reduce the amount of suffering the patient must enduring. Dying with dignity could be beneficial for not only the person who is dying, but also the personÃ¢â¬â¢s family and loved ones. This option, however, is oftenRead MoreShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal?761 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages We Should be in Favor of Physician-assisted Suicide In a momentous decision released February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Physician-assisted suicide will be legal in Canada within 12 months. This deci-sion has caused a myriad of controversy. Opponents of physician-assisted suicide argue that the constitution recognizes the sanctity of life and no one has the right to end the life of another personÃ¢â¬â¢s. Supporters, on the other hand, argue that patients who experience constantRead MoreHealth Authority And Vital Records1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesultimate use (Death with Dignity Act, 2015).The physician must also document the elements of an informed decision in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s medical chart. The elements consist of the diagnosis, prognosis and potential risks associated with taking the medication. Result of taking the medication as well as the feasible alternatives, which include but are not limited to comfort care, hospice, and symptom control. The physician must document all reminders to the patient of his or her Ã¢â¬Å"Right to RescindÃ¢â¬ the requestRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide And The Rights Of Patients1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide needs to be recognized by the federal government to show terminally ill patients that their right to autonomy is not being ignored. The Bill of Rights of Patients was constructed to outline just this. According to the American Cancer Society, Ã¢â¬Å"the American Hospital Association drafted a PatientsÃ¢â¬â¢ Bill of Rights to inform patients of what they could reasonably expect while in the hospital.Ã¢â¬ One of the notes stated in the Bill of Rights of Patients is the right to autonomyRead MoreThe Death Of Physician Assisted Suicide1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDie With Dignity It is obvious this is a very controversial issue that is discussed daily by those who wish to die to avoid loss of dignity and also by those who think it could be immoral. For physician-assisted suicide to even be considered the patient must be of sound mind when they are requesting the physician-assisted suicide. To guarantee that the process is carried out correctly a doctor or a witness should be there to prove consciousness. The patient must be diagnosed with a terminal illnessRead MoreThe Legalization Of Physician Assisted Suicide1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIt is obvious discussing physician-assisted suicide is a very controversial issue that is discussed daily by those who wish to die to avoid loss of dignity and also by those who think it is unethical. For physician-assisted suicide to even be considered, the patient must be of sound mind when they are requesting death with dignity. Physician-assisted suicide should be a legal option for people who are unable to end their own l ives. However, there should be safeguards to prevent any sort of abuseRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide : A Controversial Subject1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide is a controversial subject all around the world. Although it is legal in some countries and states, such as the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Oregon, Montana, Washington, and Vermont it is not yet legal in most (Finlay, 2011). People travel from all around the world to these locations to receive information. Physician-assisted suicide is when terminally ill and mentally capable patients perform the final act themselves after being provided with the required meansRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide For The Terminally Ill Essay1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Physician assisted suicide for the terminally ill is one of the most debated policies in America. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) is only considered a when a patient has a terminal illness and expresses their right to end their life with a physician. This scenario typically takes place when a patient is suffering severely from a terminal illness and it is only a matter of time before they will die. Advocates for PAS have typically had a loved one who is or was suffering through their final stagesRead MoreThe Debate Of Assisted Suicide1747 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The topic of assisted suicide is very controversial and is heavily debated upon all around the world. While physician assisted suicide is only legal in the Netherlands, Switzerland, and a few states in the U.S., it is illegally practiced widely by physicians and nurses, such as Dr. Jack Kevorkian. I first heard of physician assisted suicide when the death of Dr. Kevorkian, an assisted suicide advocate and a suicide aid, was o n the news in 2011. Kevorkian assisted in the suicide of many patientsRead MoreEssay Euthanasia1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEuthanasia The right to die with dignity, euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is a very sensitive issue debated in this country today. Euthanasia is the act of painlessly ending the life of a person for the reason of mercy. It is sometimes referred to as mercy killing. Americans are hearing more and more horror stories of the elderly tragically killing his or her spouse in order to avoid painful and horrible deaths. It is sad and amazing the extreme measure one had to go through
Animal Cruelty Essay The topic of Animal Cruelty Essay is one of great importance to the wold today. Why we humans have the right reserved to treat animals as lesser individuals is beyond me. Animals are fulfilling their part in the ecosystems and communities of the earth, and to the best extent that they are able. For example, a spider is being the best possible spider that it can be, spinning webs and working diligently at what it knows best, not bothering any creatures of the earth besides the ones which it needs to capture for food. We, as humans, decided that we are a much advanced life form and can basically treat anything else in this world in ways which we cannot imagine being treated. As a result the threads holding our earth together tightly in the balance are being slowly unraveled to lead into ultimate self-destruction. In 1988, 16, 989 animals died in laboratories in the United Kingdom. This was due to such tests as acute and chronic toxicity experiments, where the animals are forced to consume substances such as perfume, make-up and other beauty products and are often literally poisoned, their systems literally overloaded by the substance in question. Another testing method is the Lethal Dose 50 percent test or LD50. In this procedure at least half of the animals must die in order for the government to figure out how much a human can ingest without dying. In one such test some animals were fed 4. lb. of lipstick and one ended up dying of intestinal obstruction. In another, 7 pints of melted eye shadow was fed to rats. In yet another, mice were wrapped in tin foil and grilled in ultraviolet light to test a sun block cream for a total of 96 hours. The results of the test were that the longer the mice stayed in the rays, the more sunburnt they got. But that is not all. A wax product used in many cosmetics was dosed into animals by a stomach tube. The amount that they used is equivalent to feeding 1 lb of the stuff to humans. The animals involved soon began salivating, bleeding from the nose and mouth, and had extreme diarrhoea. As the test progressed some more, the animals became emaciated and unkempt, had congestion in the lungs and kidneys and solid wax in the stomach. The infamous Draize eye test cannot be forgotten either. Chemicals are instilled into the eyes of rabbits in stocks, often for up to seven days. And because their eyes are physiologically different from ours, they cannot produce enough tears to wash the substance away and it remains there for long periods of time. Unfortunately for them, rabbits are cheap and simple to maintain, and they also have large eyes. In the acute inhalation test the animals are subjected to intense amounts of a certain substance or toxin in a small caged environment for four days to test the effects of chemical inhalants used in aerosol spray cans and other gaseous materials. The animals which actually survive the test are then killed to be examined. This is also done with tobacco products and alcohol. Another instance included the removal of infant rhesus monkeys from their mothers at birth and isolated or given cheap substitutes to study the need for a maternal figure early on in life. After 4 months some of the babies were able to integrate back into a normal monkey society, the ones isolated for a year or more had definite social problems. To attempt to find more out about our sexuality we of course turn to cats. After some nerve surgery, the cats involved became disoriented and lost interest in sexual activity. Healthy eating Essay There was also the dastardly one in which some silly scientist removed a cats brain to see if it could still walk afterwards. Vivisection is of course the live dissection of animals for scientific research, and is quite widespread in use today. Most of these are performed without the use of anaesthetics. The ironic thing regarding this entire situation is the fact that animals, for the most part, have a very different body chemistry than us, and, as a whole, are very different than us. So basically none of these tests has any relevancy for us today. As well, there is a widespread range of natural products already available to us which most scientists and doctors refuse to acknowledge because there is more money in animal research. This is sadistic .
The Monkey Essay, Research Paper The Monkey This historical and Chinese novel Journey to the West, which is besides known as the Monkey, is the most popular book in East Asia. Originally written by Wu Ch eng-en in the 16th century, which consisted of one 100 chapters but was traditionally cut-down to assorted lengths to accommodate different audiences. Then was translated into the words of David Kherdian who wrote the book that was chosen for our category. David Kherdian merely based the Monkey on two complete interlingual renditions, which takes a more traditional attack, including many more of the original episodes, in an brief signifier. Monkey who is the chief character is sent on a journey where he encounters tonss of jobs but through this clip he makes many friends and faces many enemies. The characters that Monkey must confront represent cosmopolitan qualities of human nature. Husuantsang represents everyman the ordinary nature of all human existences. We will write a custom essay sample on The Monkey Essay Research Paper The MonkeyThis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Pigsy symbolizes unmanageable sensualness and pure appetency while besides stand foring energy when needed on the religious way and Sandy who Chinese observers identify with the qualities of s incerity or whole vigor. These are Monkeys comrades in the Journey to the West. Then there is Monkey who has the monkey head which must be tamed by subject before the religious journey can get down. Monkey and his comrades face many devils and monsters along the manner can be seen as projections of the head. Monkey is set Forth on the religious way. Monkey than goes on to seek for his immortality than is lead to acquiring arms where he turns the arms into a hatpin which helps take him to his immortality. Throughout the novel. Keeps seeking to happen the Western Eden he faces many obstructions he ends up traveling back where he started and seek for a 2nd clip. Where the 2nd clip he than he succeeds in the Journey to the West and has faced many obstructions in seeking to acquire at that place. They than arrive to the Western Paradise where the pilgrims went back to China and Tripitaka brought his adherents to the emperor who than treated them as retainers. When the emperor had the Grand Ceremony the true Bibles were read for the first clip with the consequence that the lost psyches were saved from darkness and true instruction was promulgated throughout the imperium.
Tuesday, April 21, 2020
The Rise and Fall of Populism Paper The Rise and Fall of Populism The FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s Alliance In the 1880s, as drought hit the wheat-growing areas of the Great Plains and prices for Southern cotton sunk to new lows, many tenant farmers fell into deep debt. Lenders, grain-elevator owners, and others with whom farmers did business were angered. Depression worsened in the early 1890s, and some industrial workers shared different views on labor, trust, and monopolies. If the various alliances between the North and South were able to unite, they wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve created an astonishing mighty political force. Unfortunately, sectional differences and personality clashes quickly halted this idea. The Saint Louis meeting in 1889 formed a clear idea where certain alliances existed. Clearly, white southerners feared reprisals from landowners, and objected participation by blacks. They also rejected proposals that would have ended secret whites-only activities. Northerners also feared domination by more experienced southern leaders. The Republican Party mostly consisted of Northern farmers who wanted protective tariffs to keep out foreign grain. Democrats, who were mostly white southerners, wanted low tariffs to hold down the costs of foreign manufactured goods. Despite these differences, both parties did favor the governmental regulation of transportation and communications, liberal credit policies, equitable taxation, prohibition of landownership, by foreign investigators, and currency reform. Due to this confidence, the alliances drew more deeply into politics. Farmers had elected a number of officeholders in 1890. Alliance members controlled four governorships, eight state legislatures, forty-four seats in the U. We will write a custom essay sample on The Rise and Fall of Populism specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Rise and Fall of Populism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Rise and Fall of Populism specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer S. House of Representatives, and three seats in the U. S. Senate. The Populist movement arose as a revolt against the special privileges of industrialism and the American banking system. The Rise of Populists In the Midwest, Alliance candidates often ran on the independent third-party tickets and achieved some success in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. During the summer of 1890, the Kansas Alliance held a Ã¢â¬Å"convention of the peopleÃ¢â¬ Formation of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s party eventually began to call themselves Ã¢â¬Å"PopulistsÃ¢â¬ which derives from the Latin word populus meaning people. This American movement primarily stared to improve conditions for farmers and laborers. The Election of 1892 As the populists won over the state legislature of Kansas in 1890, William Peffer became the partys first U. S. Senator. Due to PefferÃ¢â¬â¢s humorous figure, Easter journalists and politicians viewed the party as a joke. Despite their opinion, the party gained popularity and support. By 1892, the party was ready for independent action. They summoned a PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s party convention in Omaha on July 4 to draft a platform and nominate a presidential candidate. The new partyÃ¢â¬â¢s platform was one of the most comprehensive reform documents in American history. Corruption dominated the ballot box. More importantly, corruption fostered inequality that threatened to split American society. The Omaha platform claimed Ã¢â¬Å"wealth belongs to him that created itÃ¢â¬ , and addressed the three central sources of unrest: transportation, land, and money. Populists demanded government ownership of telegraph lines and railroads and urged the federal government to reclaim all land owned for speculative purposes by railroads and foreigners. Others advocated a graduated income tax, postal savings banks, direct election of the U. S. senators, and shorter hours for workers. The party nominated an official founder through a merger of the Farmers Alliance and the Knights of Labor. James B. Weaver of Iowa was a former Union general and supporter of a liberally increased money supply. The Populist campaign roared of colorful speeches from Ã¢â¬Å"Sockless JerryÃ¢â¬ Simpson, an unschooled rural reformer, and of Mary Ellen Lease, who urged farmers to Ã¢â¬Å"raise less corn and more hellÃ¢â¬ The South introduced Charles W. Macune of Texas, Thomas Watson of Georgia, and Leonidas Polk of North Carolina. The vigorous language on the Omaha platform derived from MinnesotaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ignatius Donnelly, pseudo-scientist and writer of apocalyptic novels. Finally, the campaign presented James Hogg, the three-hundred-pound governor of Texas, and one-eyed Senator, Ã¢â¬Å"Pitchfork BenÃ¢â¬ Tillman of South Carolina, who were not dedicated Populists, but rather used the campaigning for their own political needs. James B. Weaver and campaigned for the following: Ã ·Unlimited cheap silver money (they wanted a rate of sixteen ounces of silver to one ounce of gold) Ã ·Government ownership of all railroads and telephone companies Ã ·A graduated income tax Direct election of U. S. senators Ã ·Single-term limits for presidents Ã ·Immigration restriction Ã ·Shorter workdays Although Weaver gathered over a million votes in the 1892 election, and majorities in four states and twenty-two electoral votes, he lost badly. Rural dwellers still had emotional faith in the future. Even though Populists w ere flawed Democrats-they still wanted to fulfill their version of American ideals and stuck with their mistrust of blacks. Millions of people had begun to believe that a cooperative democracy could overcome corporate power. Between 1892 and 1896, however, the party failed to make further gains, in part because of fraud, intimidation, and violence by Southern Democrats. The Depression of 1893 An apparently minor but ominous event occurred shortly before Grover Cleveland took office for the second time in 1893: the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, one a profitable line, went bankrupt. Due to the heavy borrowing to lay the track and build stations and bridges, ultimately put the company into an unpayable debt. Manufacturers experienced a similar dilemma. McCormick farm machinery factories bought more machines to get more work out of fewer laborers. This strategy, however, only enlarged the debt and increased unemployment. The employers couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay their creditors. The failure of the National Cordage Company in May 1893 accelerated a chain reaction of business and bank closings. By June, the number of failed banks reached 128. Between 1893 and 1897, the nation suffered the worst economic depression it has ever experienced. The severe depression made Grover Cleveland, from the Democratic Party wildly unpopular. Between 1892 and 1895, New York policeman estimated that twenty thousand homeless and jobless people roamed the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s streets. As the depression grew, the currency conflict reached a breaking point. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 had committed the government to buy 4. 5 million ounces of silver each month. Payment was to be in gold, at the ratio of one ounce of gold for every sixteen ounces of silver. The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s gold reserve soon fell below $100 million in early 1893. President Cleveland called a special session of Congress to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and was actually repealed in late 1893. At about the time Cleveland called the session, doctors had discovered a malignant tumor on his plate that required immediate removal. He kept his illness a secret in fear of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. He eventually recovered, but those who knew of his surgery believed it had sapped his vitality. After improving slightly, in 1895, the economy plunged again. Farm income declines, factories closed, and banks that remained open restricted withdrawals. As in most hard times, the depression reached a limit. New gold discoveries in Alaska, good harvests, and industrial growth brought relief. Railroads had been the primary mover of the American economy in the 1850s ,which led to the opening of new markets. By 1890, many companies expanded too rapidly. People also under-estimated their debts driving five-hundred banks and sixteen thousand businesses into failure. Canadian and Russian wheat growers, Argentine cattle ranchers, Indian and Egyptian cotton producers, and Australian wool producers also complicated matters with American farmers. When farmers fell into debt and lost purchasing power, the economic health of railroads, farm-implements, manufacturers, banks and other businesses were affected. Over thirteen hundred strikes and riots took place in 1894, which led to the beginning of the era of protest in 1877. Throughout this time, societies began to establish a new socialist order of justice and inequality. It appealed to intellectuals because it promised an end to class conflict and crude materialism. CoxeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Army American socialism lacked strong leadership and therefore suffered greatly. In 1894, the American Railway Union elevated a new socialist leader, Eugene V. Debs. Although he was never good at organizing, Debs captivated large audiences with his attacks on the free-enterprise system. Soon enough, however, Debs had to share his attention with a quiet businessman from Massillon, Ohio. Like Debs, Jacob S. Coxey believed the government should issue paper money unbacked by gold. Coxey started an army and gathered recruiters from industrial towns and rural villages. His march on April 30th, expressed the frustration of people seeking relief from uncertainty. The troops main focus was more jobs and better living standards. This group eventually became the Socialist Party by the 1900s. Democratic leaders wanted to destroy the third-party threat. Because of this, many Populists decided to maintain a middle ground between the two larger parties and not merge with either. Inside the Peoples Party, Ã¢â¬Å"mid-roadersÃ¢â¬ sought to schedule the national convention before those of the Republicans and Democrats. When they lost the fights, fusionists hoped that silver-Democrats would be victorious in the convention. When this happenedwith the nomination of William Jennings Bryan on a free-silver platformmid-roaders found themselves in a difficult spot. The Populists were underfinanced and underorganized in late 1894. Republicans and Democrats took turns to destroy the Populist voting strength. To do so, southern white legislators took steps into preventing all blacks from voting. In 1876, the Fifteenth Amendment prohibited states from denying the right to vote Ã¢â¬Å"on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Ã¢â¬ Their second attempt was implying a poll tax eight months before voting, and to prove someone is literate, expecting many blacks to be incapable of such acts. Bryan and the Ã¢â¬Å"Cross of GoldÃ¢â¬ speech Democrats who were silver supporters went over to the Populists as the presidential elections of 1896 neared. The Democratic convention that year was witness to one of the most famous speeches in U. S. political history. Pleading with the convention not to crucify mankind on a cross of gold, William Jennings Bryan, the young Nebraskan champion of silver, won the Democrats presidential nomination but it presented the Populist party with a serious problem. Should Populists join Democrats in support of Bryan, or should they nominate their own candidate? Many reasoned that supporting a different candidate would split the anti-McKinley vote and guarantee a Republican victory. The Failure of Populism The results revealed that the political stand-off had finally ended. McKinley beat Bryan by over 600,000 popular votes and won in the Electoral College by 271 to 176. McKinley appealed to a wide range of Americans. Conservative Americans feared cheap money and inflation so much that they flocked to McKinley and the Republican camp. Wealthy businessmen in the East dumped about $6Ã¢â¬â12 million into McKinleyÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign, making it the fattest campaign fund of any American candidate ever. Some Democrats quite reasonably claimed that McKinley had purchased the White House. McKinley ultimately killed the PopulistsÃ¢â¬â¢ dream of free silver in 1900 when he signed the Gold Standard Act to peg the value of the dollar to an ounce of gold. He also signed the Dingley Tariff in 1897 to set overall tariff rates at about 45 percent. Although Populists and fusion candidates won a few state and congressional elections, the Bryan-Watson ticket of the Populist party polled only 222,600 votes nationwide. Therefore, the Populist crusade collapsed in 1896. Historians regard the election of 1896 as one of the most important elections of the nineteenth century, and certainly the most significant election since the Civil War. First, it represented a victory of urban middle-class Americans over agrarian interests in the West and South. Populism had never really spread into the cities, and BryanÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal for free silver and inflation had alienated even the poorest Americans in the cities who depended on a stable dollar for survival. The Bryan campaign thus marked the last attempt to win the presidency through appeals to rural voters. It also marked the death of the Populist movement, which lost steam when it supported the Bryan campaign, essentially merging with the Democratic Party. Works Cited A People and a Nation. U. S. A: Norton, Katzman, Escott, Chudacoff, Paterson, Tuttle, 1994. Agrarian Distress and the Rise of Populism. United States History. 1 Sep. 2008. http://countrystudies. us/united-states/history-81. htm. Argesinger, Peter H. Populism, Its Rise and Fall. Populism, Its Rise and Fall. 2007. 1 Sep. 2008. http://www. kansaspress. ku. edu/pefpop. html. The Populist Party. 1896: The Peoples Party. 2000. 1 Sep. 2008. ;http://projects. vassar. edu/1896/populists. html;.